• Heart disease can be prevented by modifying some of the risk factors.
  • certain traits and lifestyle habits increase the risk of heart attack.
  • By reducing the risk factors, we can reduce the progression of plaque formation and chances of having a heart attack.
Prevention of Heart Disease

Blood pressure

  • Systolic Blood pressure(top or high number) is the pressure inside your arteries when the heart contracts and pumps blood into the arteries.
  • Diastolic Pressure(bottom or low number) is the pressure inside your arteries when the heart is relaxing and filling with blood.
  • high Blood pressure is hypertension. Hypertension causes heart disease, stroke, eye damage, kidney problems with linear progression of time.
  • Normal : Systolic BP <120, Diastolic BP < 80 mm Hg
  • Pre- Hypertension: SBP= 120-140, DBP=80-90
  • Moderate Hypertension: !40-160, DBP=90-100
  • Severe Hypertension: SBP>160, DBP>100 mm Hg.
  • Avoid eating oily foods and keep daily salt intake less than 4 gm.
  • Avoid eating Paneer,cream milk, icecream, butter, ghee.
  • Eat more of green leafy veggies, fruits, carrots, cucumber, beetroot.
  • Avoid pickle, papad and salty food items and snacks.
  • Reduce weight if obese.
  • Non – vegetarians may eat fish once a week.
  • Walk regularly for 20 minutes 4 times in a week.
  • Stop eating tobacco, Stop smoking.
  • avoid mental stress
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take medications regularly as prescribed by the physician.

Diabetes

  • Diabetes mellitus is derived from the greek work diabetes( to flow through: urine) and latin word mellitus(sweet or honey-like)
  • Type 2 diabetes commonly is due to insulin resistance.
  • Fasting blood sugar of more than 120 mg/dL on different occasions indicates diabetes.
  • Avoid eating sugar, sweet drinks, juices, icecream, aerated cold drinks, cakes, pastries, alcohol.
  • Eat green veggies, peas, karela, dudhi, brinjals, cabbage, bheendi, ginger, tomatoes, cucumber.
  • Rice may be eaten in small quantities.
  • eat small, frequent meals.
  • Apples, Oranges,papaya,watermelon,chikoo, pomegranate may be eaten in moderation.
  • Walk regularly.
  • Take your anti diabetic medicines as adviced by the doctor.

Cholesterol

  • LDL is called bad cholesterol since it causes atherosclerotic plaque to build up inside your coronaries.
  • HDL is called good cholesterol because it helps to remove LDL from the walls of coronary arteries.
  • High trigycerides are associated with coronary artery blockage.
  • Keep cholesterol levels below 200 mg/dL to prevent coronary disease by walking, aerobic exercise, healthy dietary habits.

Smoking

  • mokers are prone to heart attack twice that of a non smoker. Smoking speeds up development of plaque in arteries.
  • Smoking reduces HDL levels, increases stickiness of blood cells.
  • Smoking causes palpitations.
  • Stop smoking and there will be a dramatic improvement in the status of your coronary disease.

Obesity

  • Obesity increases the chances of developing hypertnsion, diabetes, heart disease, stroke,colon cancer.
  • Body Mass index ( BMI) of more than 25 is bad and more than 30 is dangerous. BMI = weight in Kg/(height in metres)* 2
  • Do systematic exercises to keep body weight in control.

Physical inactivity

  • Regular aerobic exercise reduces the risk of heart disease by 50%.
  • Use staircase instead of elevator,Do extra walking whenever you can.
  • regular exercise reduces stroke, osteoporosis, cancer and stress.
  • Age, Sex and Family History
  • These are risk factors which you cannot control.
  • Risk of heart disease increases as age advances., esp. after 45 for males and after 55 in females.
  • genetic predisposition determines the risk of your heart disease immensely.
  • general Tips for a healthy heart

A. Exercise

  • FITT is safe and powerful way to prevent heart disease.
  • F= frequency of training: 4-6 times/week
  • I= intensity, how hardyou exercise.To obtain max benefit, exercise between 55-85% of your maximum heart rate.
  • The maximum heart rate is 220-age.
  • T=Time, 30-60 minutes of aerobic activity is good.
  • T=type of exercise.
  • Best form is aerobic exercise. walking, swimming,cycling,rowing or similar…
  • Warm up 5 minutes before exercising.
  • consult your doctor before exercising planning.
  • drink plenty of water.
  • Cool down after exercise.

B. Nutrition

  • healthy Diet is a lifestyle change over a sustained period.
  • Eat variety of foods.
  • Eat lots of veggies and fruits. avoid fruit juices.
  • Use oil sparingly for cooking like 5-15 ml/day/person. Mustard, sunflower,rice bran and olive oil are recommended.
  • Recommended healthy heart diet
Nutrient

recommended intake

  • Saturated fat …………………………………………….7% of total calories
  • polyunsaturated fat …………………………………. upto 10%
  • Monosaturated fat …………………………………… upto 20%
  • total fat ……………………………………………………. 20-30% of total calories
  • Carbohydrates …………………………………………… 55% of total C
  • Proteins …………………………………………………. 155 of total C
  • Fibre ………………………………………………………. 20-30 gms/day

C. Stress

  • Avoid anger and tension
  • Do Yoga
  • Do meditation
  • Cholesterol …………………………………………… upto 150 mg/day
  • Total calories ……………………………………………….. Balance to maintain energy levels and optimum body weight